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The Complete Guide to Growing and Caring for Wax Myrtle



Wax Myrtle

What is wax myrtle?

Wax myrtle, also known as southern wax myrtle or candleberry, is a hardy flowering plant native to the southeastern United States. This versatile shrub belongs to the genus Myrica, which contains about 35–50 species of small trees and shrubs.

Some key facts:

  • Native Range: This is native to the southeastern coastal plains of the United States, from southeastern Virginia down through central Florida and west to Texas and Oklahoma.
  • Physical Characteristics: These are evergreen shrubs or small trees that grow to about 10–15 feet tall but can reach heights of 20 feet. The leaves are aromatic and oval-shaped, with a glossy dark green color.
  • Flowers: These plants produce small yellowish-green flowers in spring that develop into gray-white waxy berry clusters in the fall. The berries are made up of wax-coated seeds.
  • Uses: In addition to ornamental landscaping, wax myrtle has been used for medicinal purposes to make scented candles, and the leaves can be used for tea. The wax coating on the berries was historically used to make candles.

Wax Myrtle is a great choice for landscapers and gardeners looking for an attractive, versatile shrub that can thrive in difficult growing conditions like coastal areas, sandy soils, and drought. The next section will cover the most popular cultivars.

Wax Myrtle Varieties

There are several popular varieties of wax myrtle that can be found at nurseries or grown from seed. Here are some of the most common cultivars:

  • Southern Wax Myrtle: The classic native variety that grows well in USDA zones 7–10. It has an upright, dense growth habit.
  • Gulf Stream: A dwarf compact cultivar that only reaches 2 feet tall. It has light green leaves and is slower-growing.
  • Anna’s Magic Ball: This is a cute, rounded dwarf variety growing to 3 feet high and wide. It has a soft, fluffy appearance.
  • Gray’s Woodlander: Grows to medium size of 6–8 feet tall. It has attractive, darker blue-green leaves and is deer-resistant.
  • Nana purpurea adds a unique color with purplish-green leaves. This dwarf variety only grows to 3 feet tall and wide.

When selecting a wax myrtle cultivar, consider the mature size and growth characteristics to match your landscape needs. The dwarf varieties work well in containers and small gardens.

Growing Conditions

Wax myrtle is adapted to the humid coastal climate of the southeastern US. It can grow in most soil types but does best in moist, well-draining, acidic soil. Here are the key conditions it needs:

  • Hardiness Zones: 7–10
  • Sun: Full sun to partial shade
  • Soil: sandy, loamy, or clay soil. Prefers moist, well-draining, acidic soil pH 5–6.
  • Water is drought-tolerant once established but benefits from occasional watering during dry periods.
  • Temperature: Tolerates hot, humid summers. Resilient through winter freezes and frosts.

Wax myrtle can tolerate salt spray, high winds, and sandy soils, making it ideal for coastal landscapes. Provide afternoon shade in zones 9 and 10. Shelter from cold winter winds in cooler zones.

How to Plant Wax Myrtle

Wax myrtles can be planted in the spring or fall by seeds or nursery container plants. Follow these tips:

Planting Container Plants

wax myrtle
  • Dig a hole twice as wide as the pot and slightly shallower.
  • Carefully remove the plant from its container and loosen the roots.
  • Place into the hole and backfill with native soil; water thoroughly.

Planting Seeds Outdoors

  • Cold stratify seeds by placing them in moist soil in the refrigerator for 30–60 days.
  • In fall, sow seeds 1/4 inch deep in well-draining soil.
  • Water daily until germination in 15–60 days.

Proper Spacing

  • Dwarf varieties: 3 feet apart
  • Full-size varieties: 5–6 feet apart
  • Plant in rows or groupings to create a natural hedge.


Apply 2-3 inches of pine straw or shredded bark around new plantings to help retain moisture. Replenish as needed.

Caring for Wax Myrtle Shrubs

Once established, wax myrtles are relatively low-maintenance shrubs. Here are some tips for keeping them healthy:

  • Pruning: Prune selectively in late winter to shape and thin out dense growth. Avoid heavy shearing.
  • Fertilizer: Apply acid-loving fertilizer in early spring. Avoid high-nitrogen formulas.
  • Soil pH: Check periodically and amend the soil with sulfur to maintain slightly acidic pH levels if needed.
  • Pests: Watch for scale insects, spider mites, or aphids. Use a horticultural oil or insecticidal soap.
  • Diseases: Root rot can be an issue in poor-draining soils. Improve drainage and allow soil to dry between waterings.
  • Winter Care: Protect from harsh winter wind and ice damage. Shake off heavy snow loads.

Using and Harvesting

Wax myrtle provides ornamental beauty and practical uses:

Ornamental Value

  • Attractive foliage, flowers, and berries
  • Provides year-round interest
  • Great for hedges, screens, and foundation plantings


  • Leaves have a pleasant fragrance when crushed
  • Used to make scented teas and flavored drinks
  • Added to potpourri for aromatic properties

Essential Oils

  • Steam distillation can extract essential oils from the leaves and twigs.
  • Oils are used in soaps, perfumes, and aromatherapy.


  • Once used to make candles from the wax coating
  • Potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits

Harvest leaves as needed. Pick berries when they turn gray-white. Don’t overharvest from wild plants.

Landscaping with Wax Myrtle

With its versatility and adaptability, wax myrtle can be incorporated into landscapes in many ways:

  • Hedges, screens, and borders
  • Foundation plantings or specimen shrubs
  • Groupings for erosion control on slopes or banks
  • Natural habitat and food source for birds
  • Accent or focal point shrubs in garden beds
  • Containers and planters on patios and entryways

The dwarf cultivars work especially well in containers. The full-size varieties can create lush, dense privacy hedges and screens. Combine with perennials like coneflowers or ornamental grasses for season-long interest.

Frequently Asked Questions

Here are answers to some common wax myrtle growing and care questions:

How fast does wax myrtle grow?

Wax myrtle can grow over 2 feet per year when conditions are optimal. It reaches full size in about 10 years.

Does wax myrtle like full sun?

It grows best in full sun but also tolerates partial shade, especially in hot climates. Provide afternoon shade where summers are extremely hot.

Is wax myrtle deer resistant?

The wax coating on the leaves makes wax myrtle relatively deer-resistant. But hungry deer may still nibble.

Does wax myrtle have invasive roots?

It can spread underground and send up new shoots. Be diligent about removing unwanted suckers.


What’s the best fertilizer for wax myrtle?

Use acid-loving camellia or azalea fertilizer formulations in early spring. Avoid high-nitrogen products.


With its adaptability to coastal climates, drought tolerance, and ornamental qualities, wax myrtle is an excellent addition to landscapes across the southeastern US. Once planted, it requires minimal care to create attractive hedges, screens, borders, and focal points. Select the right cultivar, provide well-draining acidic soil, and prune periodically for best results in growing wax myrtle.


The Ultimate Guide to Anti-Aging: Diet, Lifestyle, Skincare and Procedures for Healthy Aging





Aging is an inevitable natural process that affects us physically and mentally over time. As we age, changes occur in nearly every part of the body, from wrinkling skin to deteriorating muscles, bones, and brain function. While some aging factors are out of our control, such as genetics, many aspects of aging can be significantly slowed down through lifestyle choices that support overall health.

The keys to aging gracefully and minimizing age-related decline include the following:

  • Consuming an anti-aging diet rich in antioxidants and nutrients
  • Following skin protection and care protocols
  • Incorporating lifestyle habits that reduce inflammation and oxidative damage
  • Undergoing cosmetic procedures and aesthetic medicine treatments

This comprehensive guide covers the top-researched diet, lifestyle, skincare, and treatment approaches proven to promote anti-aging of the skin, brain, muscles, gut, and the entire body. Read on to discover over 50 science-backed, age-defying strategies.

Anti-Aging Diet

Diet and nutrition play a profound role in the aging process. Consuming foods high in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds can protect against oxidative damage from free radicals, reducing inflammation throughout the body and the cross-linking of collagen that leads to wrinkled, sagging skin. Key antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, and selenium also preserve skin elasticity by promoting collagen formation.

Additionally, improving gut health with prebiotic and probiotic foods helps nurture microbiome diversity, which is critical for overall wellness. Nutrient-dense foods also provide energy for cellular regeneration and renewal processes that deteriorate with age.

Here are the top categories of anti-aging foods, along with specific examples in each group:

Antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables: Blueberries, leafy greens, avocados, cruciferous veggies, sweet potatoes

Anti-inflammatory herbs and spices: Ginger, turmeric, oregano, cinnamon, and rosemary

Collagen-boosting foods: Bone broth, egg whites, citrus fruits, and berries

Gut-healthy fermented foods: Yogurt, kimchi, sauerkraut, kefir, tempeh


Healthy fats: Olive oil, salmon, walnuts, chia seeds, and flaxseeds

Consuming a balanced diet featuring these anti-aging superfoods provides the nutrients needed to facilitate cellular regeneration, protect telomeres, promote detoxification, reduce oxidative stress and inflammation, and preserve skin collagen and elastin protein structures.

Some of the top anti-aging foods include:


  • Rich in vitamin C and antioxidants, including anthocyanins, ellagic acid, resveratrol, and quercetin,
  • Protect skin collagen and prevent free-radical skin damage leading to premature aging.
  • Studied benefits include increasing collagen production, preventing collagen breakdown, and reducing inflammation.
TypeKey Nutrients
Blueberriesanthocyanins, vitamin C, manganese
Strawberriesanthocyanins, ellagic acid, quercetin
Blackberriesanthocyanins, fibers, vitamins C and E

Leafy Greens

  • Rich in lutein, zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin K, beta-carotene, iron, and calcium.
  • It helps reduce skin damage from UV radiation and improves epidermal thickness, dermal collagen density, and skin barrier function.

Nuts and Seeds

  • High in vitamins E and B complex, zinc, selenium, magnesium, fiber, plant protein, and healthy fats.
  • Make skin less sensitive to UV radiation damage while nourishing skin barrier health.
  • Walnuts and flaxseed have exceptional benefits.

Extra Virgin Olive Oil

  • It is loaded with anti-inflammatory antioxidants like oleocanthal and oleuropein.
  • Research shows daily EVOO in the diet protects against sun damage and lipid peroxidation damage to skin cells from radicals.

Green Tea

  • Powerful catechins like EGCG have remarkable free radical-scavenging capabilities in both skin cells and the body as a whole.
  • Prevents collagen breakdown and wrinkles.
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)Most abundant and potent antioxidant catechin, protects skin cells from damage induced by UV radiation and environmental pollutants
Epicatechin (EC)Scavenges free radicals, reduces inflammation
Epigallocatechin (EGC)Inhibits matrix metalloproteinases to preserve collagen
Epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG)Stimulates glutathione production for enhanced antioxidant defense

Fatty Fish

  • Omega-3 fatty acids from salmon, sardines, herring, mackerel, and other fatty fish fight inflammation to minimize collagen degradation while promoting skin elasticity.


  • Loaded with monounsaturated fatty acids, vitamins E and C, zinc, lutein, lycopene, and various carotenoids.
  • Research verifies avocados protect skin from UV inflammation to maintain a more youthful skin tone and texture over the long term.

Cruciferous Vegetables

  • Cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower, kale, and Brussels sprouts contain sulforaphane and indoles. These compounds inhibit inflammatory cytokines, enhance the production of the antioxidant glutathione, and activate the Nrf2 pathway to stimulate collagen synthesis.

Sweet Potatoes

  • The rich supply of antioxidant vitamins A and C defends skin cells against oxidative assault from radicals.
  • Purple sweet potato varieties provide protective anthocyanins and polyphenols.

Let’s explore some of the ways these anti-aging foods counteract the factors that accelerate skin aging.

1. Neutralizing skin-damaging Free Radicals

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV rays, ozone pollution, cigarette smoke, industrial chemicals, and even normal cellular metabolism accelerate aging through oxidative damage to cell membranes, proteins, and DNA. This ramps up the production of matrix metalloproteinases that degrade collagen. Consuming antioxidant-rich foods protects the skin by donating electrons to satisfy free radicals before they can harm skin cell integrity.

2. Reducing Inflammation

Low-grade chronic inflammation is intimately involved in aging and common diseases. Over time, heightened inflammatory cytokines degrade collagen and elastin. The polyphenols, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants in anti-aging foods exert systemic anti-inflammatory effects to preserve youthful skin, joint, cardiovascular, brain, and immune function.

3. Facilitating Skin Barrier Repair

The epidermis outer skin barrier ensures body homeostasis by preventing water loss and avoiding toxins, allergens, and pathogens. Dysfunctions accelerate skin aging. Nutrients in anti-aging foods maintain skin structural proteins like filaggrin while improving skin barrier restoration after damage.


4. Stimulating Dermal Collagen Production

Diminished collagen production from fibroblasts and increased breakdown by elevated matrix metalloproteinases largely drive the age-related thinning of the dermal layer. Key vitamins, botanical compounds, amino acids, and minerals in anti-aging foods have been shown in clinical studies to stimulate fibroblasts for revved-up collagen synthesis.

5. Optimizing Cellular Detoxification and Regeneration

Aging organs and tissues experience decreased efficiency in removing damaged molecules and rebuilding properly functioning cells. Nutrient-dense whole foods supply bioactive compounds and cofactors that recharge natural detoxification systems while providing the raw materials needed for tissue growth and repair.

In addition to inciting the mechanisms described above, research continues to uncover new ways various phytochemicals and micronutrients facilitate more youthful gene expression profiles. Overall evidence clearly demonstrates that regularly consuming a spectrum of unprocessed plant foods pays dividends for enhancing healthy longevity free of chronic diseases.

Lifestyle Factors for Anti-Aging

In addition to diet, implementing healthy lifestyle habits can profoundly influence the rate of aging. Getting adequate regular exercise, quality sleep, stress reduction, and the avoidance of smoking or excessive alcohol intake prevent low-grade chronic inflammation that degrades cells and tissues over time.

Here are some of the top lifestyle measures proven to slow aging:

Get Enough Sleep

Poor sleep leads to increased cortisol and oxidative stress, along with decreased tissue repair and growth hormone levels. Aim for 7-9 hours per night. Developing good sleep habits with a consistent routine helps maximize restorative deep REM sleep, which is critical for anti-aging.

Exercise Regularly


Moderate exercise for at least 150 minutes per week helps preserve muscle mass and bone density while lowering inflammation and preventing diseases of aging like diabetes and heart disease. Both cardio and strength training are important. Yoga and pilates also boost flexibility and balance.

Manage Stress Levels

Chronic stress results in elevated cortisol, which can accelerate aging throughout the body. Relaxation practices like meditation, deep breathing, massage, and adaptogenic herbs help counteract strain on the nervous system, allowing cells to allocate resources to rejuvenation rather than threat response.

Avoid Smoking and Limit Alcohol Intake

Smoking unleashes a torrent of free radicals that damage skin collagen and elastin, while also depleting nutrients and reducing blood flow. Excessive alcohol intake also induces inflammation, alters hormone levels, dehydrates the body, and magnifies skin aging.

Additional Anti-Aging Tips:

  • Consume probiotic and prebiotic foods daily for gut health and balanced inflammatory signaling
  • Stay socially active through community groups and challenge your brain regularly with puzzles or learning new skills to prevent cognitive decline
  • Get preventative health screenings and regular medical checkups to catch issues early
  • Use comprehensive vitamin and mineral supplements as an insurance policy if optimal nutrient intake is difficult to maintain consistently through diet alone

By making lifestyle adjustments to support all systems of mind and body, the cumulative effects facilitate youthful vitality regardless of chronological age. Diet provides the building blocks, while healthy habits supply the optimal environment for active longevity.

Skin Aging Prevention

Preventing and minimizing skin damage from UV exposure, environmental pollutants, stress, and unhealthy lifestyle habits preserves youthful skin texture and tone. Start incorporating good skincare habits even before signs of aging emerge for maximum benefit down the road.

SunscreenWear broad spectrum SPF 30+ daily
UV ExposureSeek shade during peak hours, wear hats/protective clothing, avoid tanning
LifestyleHealthy diet, don’t smoke, manage stress, stay hydrated

In addition to general healthy lifestyle measures, evidence-based skincare ingredients provide protection against oxidative assault on the skin:

Key Anti-Aging Ingredients

  • Antioxidants: Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Polyphemus bark extract, niacinamide
  • Alpha Hydroxy Acids: Glycolic acid, lactic acid
  • Ceramides: Skin-identical lipids to nurture a protective barrier
  • Peptides: Signal proteins that spur collagen production
  • Growth Factors: Cytokines that activate skin cell regeneration
  • Retinoids: Vitamin A derivatives repair UV photoaging damage
  • Sun Protection Filters: Mineral or chemical agents preventing UV damage

Using professional skincare products formulated with blends of these researched ingredients daily provides cumulative skin rejuvenation benefits far greater than sporadic use.

Incorporating periodic professional anti-aging treatments also speeds up results:

  • Laser Resurfacing: An ablative fractional CO2 laser vaporizes microcolumns of skin, prompting a rapid healing response for smoother, firmer skin tone and texture.
  • Microneedling: Small needles puncture the epidermis, inducing collagen formation in the papillary dermis with minimal downtime. Often combined with radiofrequency heating.
  • Chemical Peels: The application of alpha-hydroxy acids, trichloroacetic acid, phenol, or other agents onto the skin sloughs away damaged outer layers, allowing renewed growth underneath. Improves tone, texture, fine lines, and pigmentation.
  • Ultrasound Energy: Focused ultrasound waves transmit heat into deeper tissue, activating fibroblasts for strengthened collagen architecture and providing lifting and tightening.
  • Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP): Injecting the patient’s own platelet-rich plasma extracted from the blood stimulates new collagen formation, skin rejuvenation, and healing.

Using professional skincare products with evidence-backed ingredients along with periodic office treatments provides cumulative skin rejuvenation benefits that are greater than either approach alone.

Anti-Aging Skincare Recommendations

Consistent daily skincare protects skin from external aging aggressors while supplying nutrients needed for cellular regeneration. Tailoring product selection for your specific skin goals maximizes meaningful results.

Here are guidelines for choosing products in key categories:


Cleaning skin daily is crucial to sweep away oil, dirt, makeup, and debris that clog pores and generate free radicals. Use gentle, non-foaming gel or cream cleansers without parabens, sulfates, or fragrances. Incorporate chemical exfoliants containing lactic acid, glycolic acid, or fruit enzymes 2-3 times per week to facilitate skin cell turnover.


Serums feature high concentrations of active ingredients in light formulations for deeper penetration into the skin. Those containing vitamin C, niacinamide, and/or retinol (or prescription retinoids) target fine lines, texture irregularities, tone issues, and collagen formation. Apply daily before heavier creams.


Moisturizing traps existing moisture while strengthening the skin’s protective barrier. Glycerin, ceramides (skin-identical lipids), emollient oils, and antioxidants reinforce dermal hydration and resilience. For mature and dry skin types, opt for a richer consistency. Occlusive ingredients like petroleum seal everything in.

Eye Creams

The thin, delicate skin around the eyes is highly prone to wrinkling and drying. Gently pat in products containing peptides, growth factors, ceramides, and antioxidants morning and evening, concentrating on the orbital bone area. Combination products also contain light-reflecting particles that immediately boost radiance.


Sun Protection

Vigilant daily use of broad-spectrum SPF 30+, along with hats and other shade measures, prevents future sun damage, including discolorations and cancer risk. Both mineral (zinc oxide, titanium dioxide) and chemical filters are effective. Reapply every 90 minutes with sun exposure.

To achieve better outcomes, combining professional chemical peels, laser treatments, PRP, non-ablative fractional lasers, and radiofrequency microneedling every 4 to 6 weeks results in lasting improvements that target deeper layers of the skin.

Invasive Anti-Aging Procedures

For more dramatic rejuvenation results, a variety of minimally invasive and invasive surgical anti-aging procedures are available from cosmetic dermatologists and plastic surgeons.

Some of the most popular options include:

Botulinum Toxin Injections

Injections like Botox, Dysport, and Xeomin provide temporary paralysis of facial muscles that leads to dynamic wrinkles from repetitive movements. Results typically last 3-4 months. Minimal downtime but requires ongoing maintenance injections.

Dermal Fillers

Injectable gels and smoothing agents like hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxyapatite, poly-lactic acid, and adipose-derived stem cells fill in facial lines, deeply hydrate skin, stimulate neocollagenesis, and replenish volume loss. Results can last anywhere from 6 months to 2 years, depending on the product. Minimal downtime.

Chemical Peels


Superficial, medium, and deep chemical peels dissolve the stratum corneum outer skin layer to promote shedding and regeneration. Improves pigmentation, acne, scars, tone, texture irregularities, and fine lines. Moderate redness, peeling, and irritation occur during the weeklong healing period. Repeat treatments every 4–6 weeks.

Laser Skin Resurfacing

Ablative fractional CO2 lasers precisely vaporize micrometer-width columns of tissue on the epidermis and upper dermis, which then heal rapidly over 5–10 days for improved tone, elasticity, wrinkles, and complexion clarity. Significant downtime along with risks like scarring and pigment changes.

Radiofrequency Microneedling

Microneedling with small pins creates micro-perforations in the papillary dermis, inducing localized damage and collagen formation, while radiofrequency heat activates tissue tightening in deeper layers. A series of sessions every 4-6 weeks provides gradual tightening and smoothing for up to 1-2 years.

Face Lifts

Invasive surgery removes excess sagging skin and repositions facia connective tissue structures. Often combined with a blepharoplasty eye lift and a neck/brow lift for whole-face rejuvenation. Significant recovery downtime along with visible scarring.

With professional guidance on the optimal timing and combinations of procedures, multi-modality in-office treatments and cosmetic surgeries can shave years off one’s appearance, potentially turning back the clock by 5–10+ years.

In conclusion, aging gracefully without drastic changes to appearance or energy levels is achievable through diligent anti-aging strategies. While genetics plays a role, consistent lifestyle measures along with skin protection, a nourishing diet, stress management, and strategic cosmetic procedures can remarkably slow visible signs of chronological aging.


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The Complete Guide to Using DAE Hair Styling Cream




DAE Hair Styling Cream

What is DAE Hair Styling Cream?

DAE hair styling cream is a top-selling styling product from the DAE hair care brand. DAE’s styling cream is designed to provide flexible hold, shine, and softness for a wide variety of hairstyles.

The DAE styling cream contains several key ingredients that help nourish hair and keep styles in place:

  • Beeswax – Provides light hold and control
  • Tea Tree Oil: Soothes and moisturizes the scalp
  • Vitamin E: Conditions hair and enhances shine
  • Sunflower Seed Extract: Smooths and softens hair

The result is a pliable, reworkable cream that allows you to shape and sculpt hairstyles while reducing frizz and flyaways. DAE’s styling cream also leaves a natural-looking shine that isn’t greasy.

DAE offers its styling cream in a few different varieties:

  • Original: medium hold and high shine
  • Matte – Matte finish and firm hold
  • High Hold: Maximum hold and texture

The creams come in sizes ranging from 1 ounce to 8 ounces. Travel sizes are also available to test it out.

DAE’s hair styling cream allows you to create any hairstyle with touchable texture and light, flexible control. It’s suitable for men, women, and kids, and it works on all hair types.

Who is DAE Hair Styling Cream for?

DAE’s styling cream is extremely versatile and can work for all hair types and styles, including:

  • Straight hair adds texture and light hold for messy or polished looks
  • Wavy hair defines waves and prevents frizz
  • Curly hair – Controls frizz and enhances curl definition
  • Thick hair – Provides flexible control without heaviness
  • Fine hair – Boosts volume and texture without weighing hair down

Both men and women can use DAE Hair Styling Cream. It works for short to long hair lengths. It’s also gentle enough for kids.

You can use DAE styling cream to create a wide array of hairstyles:

  • Slick backs – Keeps hair in place while remaining pliable
  • Textured crop – Adds matte definition for short hair
  • Defined curls – Controls curls without crunchiness
  • Natural waves – Enhances shape and cut down frizz
  • Voluminous blowouts – Boosts body and shine for smooth blowouts

How to Apply DAE Hair Styling Cream to Your Hair

Applying DAE Hair Styling Cream properly is key to getting perfect results for your hairstyle. Here are step-by-step instructions:

  1. Scoop out a nickel from a quarter-sized amount of DAE cream to start. Adjust the amount as needed.
  2. Rub the cream between your palms to warm it and distribute it evenly.
  3. Apply cream to the lengths of damp or dry hair with your fingers.
  4. Use your fingers to smooth and coat each section of hair, from roots to ends.
  5. Add small amounts of cream and continue smoothing until the hair is evenly coated.
  6. Blowdry, scrunch, or use a comb to style your hair as desired.
  7. Add more cream and restyle throughout the day as needed.

Start with a small amount first and build up as needed. Proper application takes some practice but helps optimize styling.

The Best DAE Hair Styling Techniques and Tips

DAE Hair Styling Cream

Once you’ve applied DAE styling cream, use these techniques to achieve stunning styles:


  • Apply to roots while blow-drying upside down
    • Use a root-boosting spray first
  • Finish with cream through the ends


  • Define curls by scrunching cream through in sections
  • Spike up textured crops by applying cream to damp hair
  • For straight styles, use cream before salt spray

Slick Backs

  • Apply cream evenly first, then use a boar bristle brush to slick back
  • Style in sections for a sleek look
  • Seal with a light gel for extra hold


  • Apply light cream through damp hair from mid-length to ends before blow-drying
  • Use a round brush to smooth and direct the airflow
  • Set with velcro rollers after drying for polished curls

Use amounts and styling techniques to see what works best for your hair type and style. DAE’s cream is very versatile!

Mistakes to Avoid When Using DAE Hair Styling Cream

While DAE styling cream is easy to use, there are some mistakes to avoid:

  • Using too much product – Start with a little and build up
  • Applying unevenly – Ensure cream coats every strand
  • Not adjusting for hair type – Fine hair needs less cream than thick
  • Using it alone for a slick style – Add gel for extra hold
  • Applying to roots when unwanted – Focus cream on mid-length to ends

Learn your hair’s needs and adjust application techniques accordingly. With some practice, you can find the perfect way to use DAE for your style.

Benefits of Using DAE Hair Styling Cream

There are many excellent benefits that come from using DAE hair styling cream:

  • Flexible Hold – Provides light control that remains movable and reworkable
  • Frizz Reduction – Smooths the cuticle to eliminate frizz and flyaways
  • Shine Enhancement – Vitamin E and oils boost radiance and luster
  • Softness – Conditions and moisturizes hair while styling
  • Natural Look – Doesn’t appear stiff, crunchy, flaky or unnatural
  • Touchable Texture – Leaves hair touchable and manageable, not stiff
  • All Day Hold – Keeps styles in place from day to night
  • Easy Restyling – Allows easy reworking as needed throughout the day

DAE checks all the boxes for styling, holfinish, ish, and versatility.

Where to Buy DAE Hair Styling Cream

DAE hair styling cream is sold through:

  • DAE’s Website – Offers a full range of styles, sizes, and bundles
  • Amazon – Prime eligible with prices competitive with the DAE site
  • eBay – Great for finding discounts on large bundles
  • Target – Limited smaller sizes and varieties in-store and online

Prices range from $10 to $20 for regular sizes based on ingredients, hold level, and quantity. Value bundles on DAE’s website can lower costs.

Inspect packaging and labeling before purchasing to ensure an authentic DAE product. Fake imitation products exist.

Reviews of DAE Hair Styling Cream from Real Users

DAE styling cream receives overwhelmingly positive reviews from real customers for its performance:

  • “This cream made styling my thick, curly hair easy – defined my curls and cut frizz without stiffness.”
  • “I love the pliable hold this gives my slick-back style. It looks natural but stays put perfectly.”
  • “This cream gave me the volume and shine I wanted for my blowouts. I love the smooth softness too.”

Reviews average 4+ stars out of 5. Most complaints stem from improper application or expectations.

When used correctly, DAE users agree that it’s an incredibly versatile and effective styling cream.


DAE’s hair styling cream allows you to create any hairstyle with natural-looking shine, softness, and flexible hold. It works for all hair types and styles. Follow proper application steps and styling techniques to get the most from DAE’s products. Available online and in-store at an affordable price point, it’s a styling cream that lives up to the hype.

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A Complete Guide to Caring for Oily Skin




Oily Skin

Welcome to our in-depth guide on caring for oily skin. In this comprehensive exploration, we will delve into the causes, signs, and symptoms of oily skin, providing detailed insights into effective at-home and clinical treatments. Additionally, we’ll discuss lifestyle changes that can positively impact oily skin management. Whether you’re dealing with a shiny complexion, frequent breakouts, or enlarged pores, this guide is tailored to equip you with extensive knowledge and practical solutions.

What is oily skin?

Causes of Oily Skin

Various factors can influence oily skin, which is characterized by excess sebum production. Understanding these causes is crucial for implementing targeted skincare routines.


Genetics plays a significant role in determining skin types, including oily skin. If oily skin runs in your family, you may be genetically predisposed to higher sebum production.

Hormonal Changes

Hormonal fluctuations, often experienced during puberty, pregnancy, or menstruation, can trigger increased sebum production. Understanding these hormonal shifts can help individuals manage oily skin during different life stages.


High stress levels can stimulate the sebaceous glands, leading to heightened oil production. Techniques such as meditation and mindfulness can be valuable for stress management.


Dietary choices can impact skin health. Diets rich in processed and oily foods may contribute to excess oil production. Incorporating a balanced diet with skin-friendly nutrients is beneficial.

Humidity and Climate

Environmental factors, especially high humidity, can exacerbate oily skin. Adjusting skincare routines based on climate conditions is essential for effective management.

Signs and Symptoms

Identifying oily skin’s signs and symptoms is crucial for tailoring appropriate care routines. Let’s explore these indicators in detail.

  • Shiny, Greasy Appearance: Oily skin often manifests as a shiny and greasy complexion, primarily in the T-zone (forehead, nose, and chin). Understanding the areas prone to oiliness helps with targeted treatment.
  • Frequent Acne and Breakouts: Excess oil can clog pores, leading to frequent acne and breakouts. Recognizing the connection between oil production and acne is key to effective skincare.
  • Enlarged Pores: Oily skin is associated with visibly enlarged pores. Incorporating products that address pore size can enhance the overall appearance of the skin.
  • Oily Residue on Skin: A noticeable oily residue may be present on the skin’s surface. Choosing the right cleansing routine helps manage excess oil without stripping the skin.

Understanding these signs enables individuals to select suitable skincare products and routines tailored to their needs.

At-Home Treatments

Effective at-home treatments are essential for day-to-day oily skin management. Let’s explore practical tips in detail.

Wash your face daily

Frequent cleansing is crucial for removing excess oil and preventing clogged pores. Choosing a gentle, oil-free cleanser ensures thorough cleansing without overdrying the skin.


Use Gentle, Oil-Free Moisturizer

Contrary to common misconceptions, oily skin requires hydration. Opting for a non-comedogenic, oil-free moisturizer helps maintain the skin’s moisture balance without exacerbating oiliness.

Blotting Papers to Absorb Oil

On-the-go solutions like blotting papers are excellent for absorbing excess oil throughout the day. They offer a quick refresh without disrupting makeup.

Clay Masks Weekly

Incorporating a weekly clay mask into the skincare routine is beneficial for absorbing excess oil and unclogging pores. Different types of clay cater to various skin needs.

Green Tea Emulsion

The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of green tea make it a valuable addition to oily skin routines. Using a green tea emulsion helps soothe and balance the skin.

Hydrocortisone Cream

In cases of inflammation and redness, a hydrocortisone cream, under dermatologist guidance, can provide relief. Understanding when and how to use it is crucial for optimal results.

Implementing these at-home treatments consistently can significantly improve oily skin conditions.

Lifestyle Changes

Beyond skincare routines, lifestyle changes play a pivotal role in managing oily skin. Let’s explore these changes in more detail.

Manage Stress Levels

Stress is a common trigger for oily skin. Engaging in stress-reducing activities such as meditation, yoga, or deep breathing exercises can positively impact both mental well-being and skin health.

Avoid Greasy, Sugary Foods

Dietary choices influence skin health. Limiting the consumption of greasy and sugary foods can help regulate sebum production. A diet rich in antioxidants and essential nutrients supports overall skin health.

Get Enough Sleep

Quality sleep is essential for skin regeneration and repair. Adequate rest, typically 7-9 hours per night, contributes to a healthier complexion and aids in managing oily skin.


Limit Alcohol

Excessive alcohol consumption can dehydrate the skin, leading to increased oil production as the skin compensates for the loss of moisture. Moderation is key to maintaining a balanced skin environment.

These lifestyle changes, when combined with a targeted skincare routine, create a holistic approach to managing oily skin effectively.

Clinical Treatments

In cases where at-home treatments and lifestyle changes may not provide sufficient results, clinical treatments under the guidance of a dermatologist become relevant.

Prescription Acne Medications

Dermatologists may prescribe topical or oral medications containing ingredients such as retinoids or antibiotics to control acne and reduce excess oil production.

Isotretinoin for Severe Acne

For severe cases of acne associated with oily skin, isotretinoin, a potent oral medication, may be recommended. It addresses oil gland activity and can lead to long-term improvement.

Oral Antibiotics

When a dermatologist prescribes certain antibiotics, they can help control inflammation and bacteria associated with acne, contributing to reduced oiliness.

Botox Injections

Botox injections are a relatively new approach to managing oily skin. By targeting the sweat glands, Botox can temporarily reduce oil production, relieving those struggling with persistent oiliness.

Chemical Peels

Chemical peels, performed by skincare professionals, exfoliate the skin, unclog pores, and reduce excess oil. For optimal results, you may need multiple sessions.

When to See a Dermatologist

Understanding when to seek professional help is crucial for effective skincare. Consider consulting a dermatologist:

  • If at-home treatments are ineffective in managing oily skin,
  • To prevent acne scarring and address persistent breakouts.
  • For personalized prescription treatment options tailored to your skin’s needs.


In conclusion, managing oily skin requires a multi-faceted approach. From understanding the causes and signs to implementing effective at-home treatments, lifestyle changes, and clinical interventions, a comprehensive strategy yields the best results. Consistency is paramount; consulting with a dermatologist ensures personalized solutions for unique skin concerns.


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The Complete Guide to Understanding and Treating Blackheads





A Comprehensive Overview of Causes, Symptoms, Prevention and Treatment

Blackheads are a common skin condition that many people experience at some point in their lives. They can be frustrating, embarrassing, and difficult to get rid of. This complete guide covers everything you need to know about what causes blackheads, how to prevent them, symptoms to watch for, and the most effective treatment options.

What are blackheads?

Blackheads, also known as open comedones, are small, dark bumps that form on the skin when dead skin cells, oil, and bacteria clog the pores. The dark appearance is not due to dirt but rather because of the skin pigment melanin. When exposed to air, the melanin turns black or dark brown, creating the trademark blackhead appearance.

Blackheads are a type of mild acne that typically forms on the face, especially in the oiliest areas like the nose, chin, and forehead. However, they can occur on other parts of the body as well, including the back, chest, neck, shoulders, and arms. Some people are more prone to blackheads based on genetics and hormone levels. Blackheads can range from barely visible bumps to larger, raised lesions.

While blackheads are unsightly and bothersome, they are considered a mild, non-inflammatory type of acne. Unlike painful red pimples and pustules, blackheads are usually not sore unless they become irritated by picking or scrubbing.

What Causes Blackheads?

There are several contributing factors that can lead to clogged pores and the development of blackheads:

  • Excess Oil Production – The sebaceous glands in the skin produce an oily substance called sebum. This oil normally travels up the hair follicles to lubricate and waterproof the skin. However, when too much sebum is produced, it can clog pores and contribute to blackheads. This excess oil production is common during puberty and adolescence when hormones like androgen surge. Adults can also experience blackheads linked to menstrual cycles, pregnancy, or medication side effects.
  • Bacterial Buildup – Acne-causing bacteria called Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) often proliferate around clogged pores. This naturally occurring bacteria gets trapped in the follicle and rapidly multiplies, causing inflammation.
  • Irritation of Hair Follicles – Environmental irritants like pollution or cigarette smoke can irritate hair follicles. Scratching or picking at the skin can also trigger increased oil production as the skin tries to heal itself. This abnormal shedding of cells allows dead skin to clog up pores.
  • Hormonal Changes – Hormone fluctuations during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, and perimenopause can stimulate increased sebum production and lead to clogged pores. Androgen hormones, like testosterone, are particularly linked to blackheads.
  • Medications – Certain oral and injected medications like corticosteroids, testosterone, lithium, anticonvulsants, androgens, and birth control can trigger blackheads as a side effect.
  • Family History – Research shows that genetics plays a role in acne susceptibility. Having parents or siblings who are prone to blackheads increases your risk. However, family history is just one contributing factor.

Table 1 summarizes the main causes of blackheads:

Causes of BlackheadsDescription
Excess Oil ProductionIncreased sebum production can clog pores. Common during puberty or due to hormones.
Bacterial BuildupAcne bacteria P. acnes proliferates in clogged follicles.
Hair Follicle IrritationEnvironmental irritants, skin injuries, or scratching can trigger increased oil and dead skin buildup.
Hormonal ChangesHormone fluctuations during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, and perimenopause stimulate sebum production.
MedicationsCorticosteroids, testosterone, lithium, anticonvulsants, androgens,, and birth control can cause blackheads.
Family HistoryGenetics can play a role in blackhead susceptibility.

In summary, excess sebum production, abnormal shedding of dead skin cells, proliferation of acne bacteria, and inflammation of hair follicles are the main causes. Hormones, medications, and genetics can influence these factors.

Blackhead Symptoms


The main sign of blackheads is small, dark bumps on the skin that appear clogged. They are slightly raised and may have a yellowish or white hue if the clog is closer to the skin’s surface. Unlike inflamed pimples or tender whiteheads, blackheads are not usually painful.

Typical blackhead characteristics include:

  • Small, dark bumps on the skin
  • Central whitish or yellowish plugs
  • “Open” clogged pores exposed to air cause a dark surface color
  • A slightly raised texture may protrude from the skin
  • Diameters of 1-3 mm generally
  • Can feel rough or bumpy to the touch
  • No pain, redness, or irritation unless infected
  • Chronic recurrence as new blackheads continually form

The most common locations for blackheads include:

  • Nose and nostril creases
  • Chin
  • Forehead
  • Cheeks and cheekbones
  • Chest
  • Back
  • Shoulders
  • Upper arms

However, they can form anywhere on the body where there are pores and sebaceous glands, including the backside and buttocks region. Areas with the greatest number of oil glands, like the “T Zone” of the face, have a higher incidence of blackheads.

Blackheads vs. Whiteheads

Blackheads and whiteheads share a similar cause, which is clogged pores filled with the same debris of oil, dead skin, and bacteria. However, there is a key difference in how they appear on the surface:

Blackheads Also called open comedones, blackheads are open at the surface, so the clogged debris is exposed to air, causing the dark appearance.
WhiteheadsAlso called closed comedones, whiteheads are covered by a thin layer of skin, so the clog remains white or skin-toned.

So while whiteheads appear on the skin as small, skin-colored bumps, blackheads look like dark dots because the central plug is open and oxidized. They also feel gritty to touch when the keratin plug is superficial.


Both blackheads and whiteheads arise from the same process of the pores becoming obstructed with oil, bacteria, and dead cells. If left untreated, they can progress into inflamed, red, and swollen acne lesions when bacteria multiply and infect the deeper layers of the follicle.

Treatments for Blackheads

There are many effective over-the-counter and prescription treatment options for clearing up blackheads.

Over-the-Counter Medications and Products

  • Salicylic Acid – This beta-hydroxy acid helps exfoliate dead skin cells and excess sebum from pore openings. It also has antimicrobial properties to fight acne-causing bacteria. Salicylic acid is found in many acne treatment gels, pads, creams, and face washes.
  • Benzoyl Peroxide – This antibacterial compound reduces P. acnes bacteria overgrowth to help unplug follicles. It also minimizes excess oil production. Found in acne spot treatments and creams.
  • Retinoids – Vitamin A derivatives like retinol and adapalene help unclog pores by increasing skin cell turnover. They are available in some over-the-counter cleansers, creams, and moisturizers.
  • Azelaic Acid – This mild alpha-hydroxy acid helps kill acne bacteria and reduce inflammation. It also prevents keratin buildup, which blocks follicles. Found in some creams and gels.
  • Glycolic Acid – This alpha-hydroxy acid is a strong exfoliant that penetrates pores, loosens clogs and shedds dead skin cells. Found in some cleansers.
  • Clay Masks – Masks containing bentonite or kaolin clay help draw out impurities from the skin and control excess oil production.
  • Charcoal Cleansers – Facial scrubs, soaps, and masks containing activated charcoal help absorb dirt and oil from pores.

In-Office Procedures

More invasive, in-office treatments a dermatologist can provide include:

  • Manual Extraction – A dermatologist can use a sterilized, micro-tip extractor tool to gently unclog blackheads and remove their contents. This is quicker than waiting for them to clear up on their own.
  • Chemical Peels – After applying a chemical solution such as salicylic acid, glycolic acid, or trichloroacetic acid to the skin, the top layers peel off to reveal smoother skin and clear out congested pores. Higher-strength acids can penetrate deeper.
  • Microdermabrasion – This minimally invasive procedure uses a wand to spray fine crystals onto the skin, which sloughs off the top layers of dead cells and debris clogging pores.
  • Laser Resurfacing – Laser energy applied to the skin helps minimize oil production, reduce acne bacteria, and improve skin tone and texture.
  • Intense Pulsed Light – This light therapy kills acne-causing bacteria deep within pores while shrinking oil glands. Often used alongside laser resurfacing.

Oral and Topical Prescription Medications

For moderate to severe recurring blackheads, prescription medications are available:

  • Oral Antibiotics – Antibiotics taken orally for 1-6 months, such as tetracycline, doxycycline, or minocycline help reduce P. acnes bacteria and inflammation.
  • Topical Retinoids – Prescription retinoids like tretinoin (Retin-A), adapalene (Differin), or tazarotene (Tazorac) are stronger forms of vitamin A that help unplug pores.
  • Oral Contraceptives – Birth control pills containing estrogen and progesterone can help reduce androgen hormones that overstimulate the oil glands.
  • Spironolactone – This diuretic lowers androgen levels in women to decrease oil production and hormonal acne like blackheads.
  • Isotretinoin – For severe, scarring acne, this powerful oral retinoid shrinks oil glands and reduces acne bacteria. Highly effective but strict monitoring is needed due to the risks.

Lifestyle Changes and Home Remedies

In addition, medications, lifestyle habits, and home remedies can help minimize blackheads.

Lifestyle Tips

  • Drink 64+ oz water daily – Staying hydrated helps flush out toxins and prevent constipation.
  • Take skin-supporting vitamins – Oral vitamin A, zinc, and vitamin C supplements benefit acne-prone skin.
  • Manage stress – Chronic stress increases cortisol, which raises oil production. Try yoga or meditation.
  • Get 7-9 hours sleep nightly – Lack of sleep disrupts hormone balance and worsens skin.
  • Exercise regularly – Aerobic exercise helps manage hormones, stress, and insulin levels.
  • Monitor diet – A low glycemic diet with healthy fats helps stabilize blood sugar and hormones.
  • Stop smoking – Smoking worsens acne by increasing inflammation and depriving the skin of oxygen.

Daily Skincare Habits

  • Use a gentle, non-comedogenic cleanser twice a day. Avoid harsh scrubs.
  • Exfoliate 2-3 times per week with a chemical exfoliant to keep pores clear.
  • Apply a lightweight, oil-free moisturizer suited to your skin type.
  • Use oil-absorbing clay masks 1-2 times per week.
  • Always remove makeup thoroughly before bedtime.
  • Avoid excessive sun exposure, which can darken acne spots.

Home Remedies

  • Tea tree oil – An anti-inflammatory essential oil that kills acne bacteria. Use a 5% dilution.
  • Apple cider vinegar – Has antibacterial and exfoliating properties. Mix with water and apply to the skin.
  • Green tea – Contains antioxidants that regulate oil production. Apply used bags or prepared tea to the face.
  • Honey – Has antibacterial properties to fight acne bacteria. Use raw honey.
  • Aloe vera gel – Soothes inflammation associated with breakouts. Apply pure gel to the affected areas.
  • Turmeric – Has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. Make a paste with water and apply it to the skin.

Preventing Blackheads

While you can’t always prevent blackheads 100%, following these tips can significantly minimize your risk:

  • Wash your face twice daily and after sweating heavily, using a sulfate-free cleanser. This prevents oil and bacteria buildup.
  • Exfoliate the skin 2-3 times per week to keep pores clear of dead skin cell debris. Don’t over-exfoliate, which can cause irritation.
  • Use oil-free, non-comedogenic skincare and cosmetic products to avoid clogging pores. Look for water-based formulas.
  • Remove makeup thoroughly before bedtime using micellar water or a cleansing balm, followed by a face wash.
  • Apply a light moisturizer suited for acne-prone skin. Avoid heavy, greasy creams that can clog pores.
  • Take skin-supporting supplements like vitamin A, zinc, and antioxidants.
  • Protect skin from the sun by wearing a broad-spectrum SPF 30 sunscreen daily. UV exposure can worsen breakouts.
  • Avoid excessive touching, squeezing, and picking at the face, as this spreads bacteria deeper into the pores.
  • Manage stress through self-care practices like exercise, meditation, yoga, journaling, or talk therapy.
  • Stick to a regular sleep schedule and get 7-9 hours of sleep a night. Lack of sleep disrupts hormone regulation.
  • Drink 64+ ounces of water daily and stay hydrated. Dehydration can show up on the skin.
  • Monitor diet and blood sugar spikes. Limit refined carbs and follow a low-glycemic diet when possible.

Seeing a Dermatologist

You may want to consider seeing a dermatologist for stubborn blackheads or severe, widespread acne. Reasons to book an appointment include:

  • Over-the-counter treatments have not improved blackheads after 2–3 months of consistent use.
  • Blackheads cover large areas of your face, chest, or back.
  • You have concerns about acne scarring or hyperpigmentation.
  • You want a deep cleansing procedure like microdermabrasion or chemical peels.
  • You are experiencing painful, inflamed cysts and nodules.
  • You have tried eliminating foods like dairy and gluten without improvement.
  • You think hormones may be involved and want testing done.
  • You have a family history of severe cystic acne.

A dermatologist can extract blackheads properly to avoid trauma and scarring of the skin. They can create a tailored treatment plan, which may include:

  • Prescription topical creams like retinoids unplug pores and increase cell turnover
  • Oral antibiotics to reduce infection-causing bacteria
  • Hormonal therapies like birth control pills or anti-androgens
  • In-office procedures such as laser resurfacing, cortisone injections, or chemical peels
  • Isotretinoin for severe, cystic acne unresponsive to other treatments

With professional guidance, you can achieve clear skin free of blackheads and their fellow acne lesions.


In summary, blackheads are extremely common, mild acne lesions that appear as small, dark bumps on the skin. They form when dead skin, excess oil, and acne bacteria plug hair follicles. Blackheads often respond well to over-the-counter treatments like salicylic acid and benzoyl peroxide. Dermatologist procedures like extraction and chemical peels can also help clear them.

Prevention aims to keep pores clear through a consistent skincare routine with gentle cleansing, chemical exfoliants, and oil-free moisturizers. Lifestyle measures like stress management and a skin-healthy diet also support clear skin. Persistent blackheads may require prescription medications or in-office treatments to fully resolve, so see your dermatologist to explore stronger options.

With a multi-pronged approach, it is possible to successfully treat and prevent blackheads for smooth, glowing skin free of clogged pores.


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Acne | The Complete Guide to Understanding and Treating





Acne is an exceptionally common skin condition that can wreak havoc on self-confidence, especially during the teenage years, when it most often first appears. But it does not exclusively affect teenagers; it can start at all ages and continue into adulthood.

Understanding the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for acne is key to controlling it. With trial and error, consistent care, and targeted treatment, acne can be successfully managed for clear, healthy-looking skin.

What is the definition of acne?

Medically known as acne vulgaris, it occurs when oily and dead skin cells clog hair follicles, allowing bacteria called Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) to multiply and cause inflammation. The end result is different types of pimples and blemishes on the skin’s surface. It most often arises on the face, back, chest, shoulders, and upper arm areas of the skin, which are rich in oil glands.

What causes acne?

There are several basic reasons that lead to its appearance:

  • Excess Oil Production: Androgen hormones can overstimulate the oil glands and cause increased sebum production, providing more “food” for acne bacteria.
  • Follicular hyperkeratinization: This is the buildup of excessive amounts of dead skin cells inside hair follicles. The cells clump together and block pores.
  • The proliferation of C. acnes bacteria: The bacteria feed on sebum and multiply rapidly inside plugged follicles, leading to inflammation.
  • Inflammation: The immune system detects the bacteria in pores and triggers inflammation. This leads to redness, swelling, and pus.
  • Hormonal Fluctuations: Shifts in androgen hormones during puberty, the menstrual cycle, and menopause can increase and worsen oil production.
  • Genetics/Family History: Studies indicate that the probability of developing it is hereditary by 80%, especially in moderate to severe cases.
  • Stress: High stress levels lead to increased cortisol and other hormonal shifts that can irritate him.

One factor, such as hormones or genetics, may trigger acne in mild cases. But in its moderate-to-severe case, several of these causes play a role simultaneously. Successfully treating it often requires a multi-pronged approach targeting several contributing factors.

Types of acne

There are several types of acne, and determining which type you suffer from is essential to finding an effective and lasting treatment. The most common types include:

  1. Non-inflammatory: This type includes blackheads and whiteheads, which don’t cause swelling and respond relatively well to over-the-counter topical medicine.
  2. Inflammatory: This type includes papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts, which are more severe and may require prescription medication from a dermatologist.
  • Papules: small, red, and inflamed bumps on the skin.
  • Pustules: Similar to papules, but with a white or yellow center filled with pus.
  • Nodules: large, painful, and deep bumps under the skin.
  • Cysts: These are large, pus-filled bumps that are often painful and can cause scarring.
  1. Severe: This type includes nodules, cysts, and acne glomeruli, a rare and severe form of acne that can cause deep cysts and scarring.

It’s important to note that it’s possible to have multiple types of it at once, and some cases may even be severe enough to warrant a visit to the dermatologist.

Symptoms and Severity

Acne consists of comedones that are plugged into pores, along with inflamed lesions called papules and pustules. There are different types of pests:


  • Blackheads (Open Comedones): Pores filled with debris and open at the surface of the skin. The plugged material is exposed to air, which turns it black.
  • Whiteheads (closed comedones): pores filled with debris underneath the skin, remaining closed at the surface. They appear as small, white bumps.

Papules and Pustules

  • Papules are small, pink, or red bumps on the skin that are tender and inflamed.
  • Pustules: Papules containing visible pus at the tips, resembling your classic pimple.

Severe Lesions

  • Nodules: large, painful, solid lumps lodged deep under the skin with no head.
  • Cysts: larger, pus-filled lumps deep within the skin that can rupture and lead to scarring.

Acne severity is determined by the type of lesions present:

  • Mild: Scattered whiteheads and blackheads Occasional small papules and pustules.
  • Moderate: More pronounced papules and pustules Localized outbreaks. May be tender or painful.
  • Severe: Widespread nodules and cysts High risk of scarring. Requires medical treatment.

While acne is most common during adolescence, when hormones are in flux, it can continue into adulthood. In adults, it is estimated to affect more than 50% of women and more than 40% of men over the age of 25. Hormonal shifts and genetics are common causes in adults.

Negative Effects

Acne has traditionally been viewed as a superficial problem related to personal hygiene. But research shows it can significantly impact mental health and well-being.

  • Sufferers have a higher prevalence of anxiety, depression, and psychological distress than the general population.
  • Severe acne is associated with suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and depression requiring psychiatric treatment.
  • It can reduce self-esteem and cause social isolation, intimacy issues, unemployment, and poor academic performance.

This makes early and effective treatment important before it leads to psychological problems. Visiting a dermatologist provides access to prescription medications that can treat it from the root before it becomes severe.

Acne treatment

There are countless treatment options available over the counter and through dermatologists:

Over-the-Counter Products

  • Benzoyl Peroxide: It unclogs pores and kills C. acnes bacteria. Can cause dryness when used in high concentrations. Start with lower 2.5–5% strengths.
  • Salicylic acid exfoliates dead skin cells inside pores and reduces inflammation. Usually combined with benzoyl peroxide
  • Sulfur exerts antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. Often found in acne spot treatments.
  • Retinoids are vitamin A derivatives that unplug pores and reduce oil. May cause irritation when first used.
  • Nicotinamide, a form of vitamin B3, has been shown to improve inflammatory acne lesions.

Prescription Medications

  • Topical Retinoids: Prescription vitamin A creams like tretinoin and tazarotene Prevent clogged pores and reduce oil and bacteria.
  • Topical antibiotics: Clindamycin, erythromycin, and dapsone help kill C. acnes bacteria and reduce inflammation when applied directly.
  • Oral Antibiotics: Doxycycline, minocycline, and other oral antibiotics fight bacterial growth from within but do not treat all its causes.
  • Oral contraceptives: birth control pills containing estrogen and progesterone balance excess androgens in females and stabilize hormones.
  • Spironolactone is an anti-androgen that inhibits male hormones, contributing to acne in adult women.
  • Isotretinoin is a highly effective oral retinoid for severe, scarring acne. It shuts down oil gland activity and prevents new breakouts.

In-Office Procedures

  • Chemical Peels: Glycolic, salicylic, and trichloroacetic acid peels remove the outer layers of skin to keep pores clear.
  • Microdermabrasion – Crystals are sprayed on the skin to gently “sand” the top layer of skin, promoting cell turnover in pores.
  • Corticosteroid Injections: Used on cystic acne to help flatten large, painful bumps.
  • Photodynamic Therapy: A photosensitizing gel and special blue light kill C. acnes bacteria.
  • Lasers and Light Therapy: Devices using blue light and infrared technology kill bacteria, shrink oil glands, and reduce inflammation.
  • Extraction: manual extraction of blackheads, whiteheads, and some pimples to remove clogged material.

There are also promising new treatments for it, such as vaccines that target C. acnes bacteria. As technology advances, we hope that more options will become available in the future.

Type of TreatmentMethods
Over-the-CounterBenzoyl peroxideSalicylic acidSulfurRetinoidsNicotinamide
Prescription MedicationsTopical retinoidsTopical antibioticsOral antibiotics, birth control pillsAnti-androgensIsotretinoin
ProceduresChemical peelsMicrodermabrasionCorticosteroid injectionsLight and laser therapy extractions

Finding the right treatment approach involves trying different products and combinations under a doctor’s supervision to determine what is best for each individual case. Severe, resistant acne usually requires prescription oral or topical medications in addition to over-the-counter products for the best results.

Lifestyle measures to prevent it

While acne cannot always be prevented due to genetic factors beyond one’s control, there are lifestyle measures that may help reduce breakouts:

  • Gentle cleansing: Cleanse skin twice a day with a mild, non-abrasive cleanser. Avoid harsh scrubs.
  • Non-comedogenic products: Use oil-free cosmetics, sunscreens, and hair products labeled non-comedogenic or non-acnegenic.
  • Frequent hair washing: shampoo regularly, especially for oily hair types, to prevent oil and products from migrating onto the skin.
  • Hands off!: Minimize touching, picking, and pressure on his lesions to avoid worsening inflammation and scarring.
  • Manage stress: Make time for relaxing activities like yoga, meditation, reading, listening to music, and other hobbies.
  • Balanced diet: Eat a low-glycemic diet emphasizing whole foods over refined carbohydrates and added sugar. Stay hydrated.
  • Smart supplements: Consider taking supplements with anti-acne effects like zinc, omega-3 fatty acids, probiotics, and antioxidants.
  • Exercise: Regular physical activity helps reduce stress and the hormonal fluctuations that can exacerbate it.
  • OTC options: Using over-the-counter options containing acne-fighting ingredients may help prevent some breakouts when used consistently.

Making lifestyle modifications reduces acne triggers from the inside out. Although there are no definitive cures for it, these tips work in conjunction with medical treatments.

Treating and Preventing Acne Scarring

One of the biggest concerns patients face is dealing with scarring and skin changes that can persist even after the blisters have healed. There are different types of scars:

Atrophic Scars

  • Ice pick: narrow, deep holes in the skin resembling puncture wounds.
  • Box car: Broad depressions with defined edges give the skin a pitted appearance.
  • Rolling: Wide depressions with rounded edges give the skin a wave-like texture.

Hypertrophic Scars

  • Hypertrophic: thick, raised scars that develop after severe inflammatory acne
  • Keloid: firm, irregularly shaped raised scar tissue growths extending beyond the original lesion.

Pigmentation changes, like dark or light spots, can also occur. Breakouts that penetrate deep into the dermis cause the most severe acne scarring. There are treatments that can improve the appearance of acne scars:

Procedural Treatments

  • Subcision: A needle breaks up fibrous bands under scars. Triggers collagen remodeling.
  • Microneedling: Small needles puncture the skin, stimulating collagen production. Smooths and plumps depressed scars.
  • Laser: energy removes the outer layers of scarred skin. Types like CO2 lasers resurface acne scars.
  • Dermabrasion: Uses a rotating brush to sand off superficial acne scars and resurface the skin.
  • Steroid injections: hypertrophic and keloid scars help soften and flatten scar tissue.
  • Fillers: Substances like hyaluronic acid temporarily plump depressed acne scars. The effects last several months.

Topical Treatments

  • Retinoids: Prescription retinoids like tretinoin, applied topically, help smooth and remodel scar tissue over time.
  • Silicone Gel Sheeting: Softens and flattens raised hypertrophic acne scars as silicone adheres to the skin.
  • Onion Extract Gel is shown to improve the appearance of atrophic acne scars. Contains anti-inflammatory quercetin.

The best approach is to use a combination of methods based on each patient’s scarring type. Prevention is key; avoiding picking and popping lesions prevents further inflammation and eventual scarring. An expert should perform gentle extractions. If scarring occurs, timely treatment helps reduce permanent or discolored scars.

Putting It All Together: A Plan for Clear Skin

Combating it requires a multi-step approach:

1. See a Dermatologist

Seeing a dermatologist ensures a proper diagnosis and access to powerful prescription acne treatments. Based on the results of tests, labs, and severity, they develop a customized treatment plan.

2. Combination Therapy

Using acne products that work in multiple ways is more successful than a single method. Combining prescription medications, over-the-counter products, and lifestyle measures yields better results.


3. Consistency is Key

Closely following treatment instructions is crucial; skipping applications of topicals quickly worsens breakouts again. Make it part of your daily routine.

4. Patience!

It takes 4 to 6 weeks to start seeing improvement. Stick with the regimen and give it time before trying new products. Avoid constantly switching methods.

5. Avoid Picking and Popping

Picking worsens inflammation. Professionals should perform gentle extractions to prevent scarring. Leave pimples alone as much as possible!

With a systematic, multi-treatment approach, consistency in following prescribed regimens, and patience to allow enough time for your acne treatment to work, your best skin is waiting for you! Ask your dermatologist about medical and home remedies intended for clear, healthy, acne-free skin.


Acne is a common condition that can reduce self-confidence but can be managed through lifestyle changes and medical treatment. Working with your dermatologist to develop an effective regimen that suits your type is crucial. Adhering to treatment, changing pillowcases frequently, and avoiding picking or popping blisters can help prevent permanent scarring. With diligence in following your treatment plan, you can achieve clear, healthy-looking skin.


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